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North Castle Books

The End of the Maoist Era: Chinese Politics During the Twilight of the Cultural Revolution, 1972-1976
Authored by: Frederick Teiwes; Warren Sun

Cloth ISBN: 978-0-7656-1096-6 Paper ISBN: 978-0-7656-1097-3
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USD: $128.95 USD: $59.95
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Available to all countries
Information: 728pp. Bibliography, index.
Publication Date: March 2007.  


Description: This book launches an ambitious reexamination of the elite politics behind one of the most remarkable transformations in the late twentieth century. It provides a detailed study of the end of the Maoist era, demonstrating Mao's continuing dominance even as his ability to control events ebbed away.

The tensions within the "gang of four," the different treatment of Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping, and the largely unexamined role of younger radicals are analyzed to reveal a view of the dynamic of elite politics that is at odds with accepted scholarship. The authors draw upon newly available documentary sources and extensive interviews with Chinese participants and historians to develop their challenging interpretation of one of the most poorly understood periods in the history of the People's Republic of China.

Selected Contents:

Tables and Abbreviations
The Protagonists in the Politburo, 1972-76

1. Coming to Terms with Lin Biao: "Ultra-Left" and "Ultra-Right"on the Road to the Tenth Party Congress, 1972-73
Responding to the Lin Biao Crisis
The Critique of the "Ultra-Left"
Liberating Cadres
Readjusting the Economy
Reviving Diplomatic Work
Into Sensitive Territory: Culture, Education, and Science
From "Ultra-Left" to "Ultra-Right"
The Return of Deng Xiaoping
Organizational Developments: The Party-State, Mass Organizations, and the PLA and the Militia
Zhou Enlai's Setback on the Foreign Affairs Front, May-July 1973
Wang Hongwen and the Tenth Congress

2. "The Second Cultural Revolution," Fall 1973-Summer 1974
After the Tenth Congress: The National People's Congress, the "Three-Month Movement," and Escalating Criticism of Confucius
Another Kissinger Visit, More Problems for Zhou Enlai
Zhou and the PLA Under Threat: The Politburo Meets, November-December 1973
Pi Lin pi Kong: The Campaign to Criticize Lin Biao and Confucius
The January Mobilization Meetings
The Campaign Enfolds, February-August
Zhou Enlai as Victim and Leader of the Movement
The PLA under Attack
Threats to Party Leadership in the Provinces
The Ascent of Deng Xiaoping

3. Toward the Fourth National People's Congress, August 1974-January 1975
Calling a Halt to pi Lin pi Kong
Dealing with Economic Disruption
The Further Emergence of Deng Xiaoping
The Fengqing Dispute and Wang Hongwen's Trip to Changsha
Forming a Government
The Fourth National People's Congress

4. Mao, Deng and the Politics of Consolidation: From the Fourth NPC to Summer 1975
Consolidating the Military, January-July 1975
Readjusting the Civilian Sector
The Struggle Against Factionalism
The Dictatorship of the Proletariat Campaign and the Empiricism Issue
The Decline of the Radicals

5. Deng's Period "In Charge": Comprehensive Consolidation, July-October 1975
The State Council Political Research Office
"The Three Poisonous Weeds": The 20 Articles on Industry, the Outline Report on the Academy of Sciences, and the General Program
The Fourth and Fifth "Poisonous Weeds": Documents on Education and Party Rectification
The First Dazhai Conference on Agriculture, September-October 1975
Gathering Clouds: The Water Margin and Mao Yuanxin's Assignment in Beijing

6. The Unfolding of a New Leadership Equation: The Turn against Deng and the Ascent of Hua, November 1975-March 1976
The Precipitating Factor: Liu Bing's Letters, August and October 1975
Evolving Criticism: The Issues and Participants Expand, November 1975-January 1976
Leaders under Attack: The Cases of Zhang Aiping, Zhou Rongxin and Hu Qiaomu
Zhang Aiping
Zhou Rongxin
Hu Qiaomu
The Strange Case pf the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Death of Zhou Enlai and a New Leadership Equation
Intensifying Attacks: February-March 1976

7. The Tiananmen Incident and Mao's Last Days, April-September 1976
The First Tiananmen Incident
The Events in Tiananmen Square
Coping with the Crisis: Decision Making in the Politburo, April 1-6
Deng 's Fate and the Revised Political Equation
Political and Policy Conflict, Spring and Summer 1976
Agriculture and Rural Policy
Economic Planning
Personnel and Organizational Issues
The Continuing Conflict in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Tangshan Earthquake
Political Calculations on the Eve of Mao's Death

8. The Purge of the "Gang of Four," September-October 1976
The Contending Forces: Resources and Perspectives
Coping with the Passing of the Great Leader, September 9 to 18, 1976
Much Ado about Nothing: Tensions over "Act according to the Principles Laid Down"
Toward the Arrest of the Radicals, Late September-October 6, 1976
The Aftermath: Stabilizing Shanghai and Producing a Rationale
Assessing the Politics of the Coup

About the Authors

Comment(s): "Tis volume traces Mao's exercise of power in his waning years and, in typical Teiwes and Sun style, corrects previous scholarly misinterpretations. The volume displays an extraordinary mastery of Chinese Communist documents and recollections by former officials, supplemented by interviews with key people in China. A major contribution to the study of Chinese communist politics." -- Ezra Vogel, Harvard University

"Teiwes and Sun provide a finely grained, nuanced, and powerfully documented account of the first stage of the leadership politics that took China 'from revolution through restoration to reform.' Their careful research profoundly deepens our understanding of the origins of Deng Xiaoping's cultural revolution--the post-Mao reforms that continue to define China today. ... The result is surely the most reliable and informative study on the operation of Chinese elite politics in this critical period." -- Timothy Cheek, University of British Columbia

"This 'gang of two' has a remarkable record of producing first-class analyses of elite politics under Mao. Their new volume is, as we've come to expect, meticulously researched and authoritatively analyzed ... [and] upsets much conventional wisdom. ... a major contribution to our understanding of the endgame of the Mao era." -- Thomas P. Bernstein, Columbia University

"Drawing upon exhaustive research in a wide range of newly available primary materials, Teiwes and Sun provide a fascinating account of a critical juncture in Chinese political history. The authors, building on their influential Mao-in-command model of Chinese politics, demonstrate that Mao Zedong's political authority remained undiminished even at the very end of his flawed reign. Chairman Mao's hegemony -- derived from his formidable revolutionary legacy -- contributed directly to the dysfunctional elite interactions of this period, bequeathing a major challenge for his successors." -- Elizabeth J. Perry, Harvard University

Review(s): "The massive amount of political information in this book would be of value to libraries seeking to develop research holdings on China. Recommended. Graduate students and faculty." -- Choice, Vol.45, No.01

"...the best detailed and sustained analysis, in English or Chinese, of a neglected period of Chinese politics." -- The China Journal

"Frederick Teiwes and Warren Sun are known for their meticulous analysis of Maoist China's elite politics, and their new book does not disappoint our expectations." -- Pacific Affairs

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